Natural diamonds are often composed of carbon that has been in the mantle since the formation of the Earth, but some are made of carbon from organisms such as algae. This is revealed by the isotopic composition of carbon.
Diamond is the most natural material hard (with the maximum index (10) on theMohs scale) and it has a very high thermal conductivity. Its properties mean that diamond finds many applications in industry as cutting and machining tools, in science as scalpels or diamond anvils and in jewelery for its optical properties.
There is no natural material that is harder than diamond, although its hardness depends on its purity. The purity of a diamond corresponds to an atomic structure characterized by a very particular orientation of the carbon atoms which constitute it. The hardness of diamond is one of the main characteristics that contribute to its popularity. Unlike many other minerals, it is scratch resistant so can be worn daily without compromising the quality of its polish. The diamond stone is therefore the ideal gemstone for engagement rings or wedding rings, as well as for any jewel worn on a daily basis: it is impossible to damage it.
The majority of natural diamonds are formed under conditions of very high temperature and pressure at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers in the Earth's mantle. Their growth requires from 1 to 3.3 billion years (between 25 and 75% of the age of the Earth). The diamonds were brought to the surface by magma from deep volcanic eruptions which cooled to form volcanic rock containing the diamonds, les kimberlites and the lamproites.
The word comes from the ancient Greek adámas "indomitable".
The majority of diamonds come from kimberlite present in the continental crust. Diamond-bearing rock forms deep within the earth. ...
We then find these diamonds in inclusions in the kimberlites. Few volcanic vents contain enough diamonds to allow exploitation.
The mechanical impurities which can be found in the rough diamond will hinder the path of the light rays in the stone and reduce its brilliance. The tailor therefore does everything possible to eliminate as many mechanical impurities as possible during the cut.
Chemical impurities, present in the form of a few foreign atoms that have been trapped in the structure, are sought after because they are the ones that give diamonds the rare color: yellow for nitrogen atoms, blue for boron atoms. or titanium.
Les diamonds all have different weights, sizes, colors and purities. This is called the “4Cs” because, in English, these criteria all start with a C: Carat (weight), Cut (size), Color (color) and Clarity (purity). These are the 4 main criteria used to classify a diamond and therefore to determine its value.
Know that there are diamonds of all colors: pink, blue, red, yellow, black, green...etc. Red is the rarest color and therefore the most expensive.
Some size examples:
The black diamond differs from other diamonds by its morphology and its constitution. Ordinary gemstones consist of a regular crystal lattice of atoms while black diamonds are a fairly porous cluster of microcrystals with additions of hematite and graphite.
The better a diamond is cut, the more it will reflect light and therefore be brilliant. The skill of the tailor is therefore crucial because, even from a color and a purity perfect, a poorly cut diamond will not be as brilliant as it could have been. Conversely, if the size of the diamond is well done, the brilliance of the diamond will be multiplied.
The purity of a diamond is evaluated according to the inclusions that can be found in it. To measure the degree of purity of a diamond, the international purity scale is used, which classifies it from F (flawless) to P3 (with inclusions). There are other criteria such as the size, the fluorescence, the symmetry, the position of the inclusions which represent the unalterable identity card of the diamond, like a fingerprint, it is unique.
Russia has developed diamond mining, 99% controlled by the giant ALROSA, of which the Russian Federal State holds 33% and the State of Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) 25%. The most important deposits of the country are concentrated in Yakutia.
Today Russia is the biggest producer of diamonds in the world.
The first large diamond deposits were found in India (16th century), then in Brazil (until the end of the 19th century) and throughout the 20th century it was in South Africa that the most beautiful stones were extracted.
The African continent provides a large share of world production (about 60% of world production) of diamonds with large deposits in countries such as Botswana (18%), South Africa (9%), the Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo (15%), Angola (6%) or Namibia (1%).
The large presence of diamonds in Africa has provoked bloody wars for several decades between ethnic groups and countries for the control of diamonds, because the resale of these stones made it possible to finance the war.
Blood diamonds are the name of these diamonds, which, as in Sierra Leone or Liberia, have financed atrocious crimes. To better trace diamonds and fight against this phenomenon, the European Union has adopted since 2003 a certification which makes it possible to determine the origin of diamonds and their non-use for war purposes, this is the Kimberley process.
Round Diamond Size/Weight Matches
A little history
Birthstone of April, the diamond is the most resistant and the purest of minerals. In Greek, diamond means indomitable force. Symbol of perfection, it sublimates the most important moments of your history.
The diamond gives you strength and wisdom, foolproof!
In Hinduism, this gem is described as a mediator whose vibrations would have a positive effect on all the organs of the body, in particular the body and the brain.
Since its discovery in India 3000 years ago, the belief has persisted that diamonds help fight poisons. It would also protect its owner against bad dreams, fight excessive worries and the formation of stones in the body. The dust of the pure and flawless diamond would also have been, according to the Indian doctors of ancient times, a formidable remedy which guaranteed strength, energy, beauty, long life and good health to whoever absorbed it.